The gold standard in diagnostic testing for osteoporosis and fracture risk is bone mineral density (BMD) measurement. However, it is neither cost-effective nor practical to perform BMD testing in every individual and use this as a fracture risk assessment tool. The majority of people are not at risk of bone disease. Thus, BMD testing is recommended only in populations that are known to be at high risk, such as women over the age of 65. What are some of the other fracture risk assessment tools available to healthcare providers?